VINSKE SORTE/ GRAŠEVINA

TEKUĆI SIMBOL SLAVONIJE

Priredio ŽELJKO SUHADOLNIK

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Kad se kaže Slavonija, misli se odmah i na GRAŠEVINU. Graševina je najraširenija sorta u Hrvatskoj  (4633 ha; oko 22 % u ukupnom sortimentu), a po rasprostranjenosti u globalnim okvirima nalazi se negdje oko 15. mjesta rang-ljestvice.

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     Graševina                         Crtež: Greta Turković

Graševinu poznajemo kao sortu srednje Europe. Osim u Hrvatskoj (kontinentalni dio, od Međimurja, varaždinskoga kraja, Hrvatskog zagorja i Plešivice na sjeverozapadu i zapadu zemlje preko Podravine i Moslavine pa do Slavonije, Podunavlja / Kutjevo, Slavonski Brod, Đakovo, Erdut, Baranja, Srijem – Ilok, Vukovar…), ima je mnogo i u Sloveniji, ponajviše u Slovenskoj Štajerskoj, zatim u Mađarskoj, Austriji, Češkoj, Slovačkoj, Rumunjskoj, a nešto i u Srbiji, te sjevernoj Italiji – u Furlaniji (tamo je u vinu najčešće miješaju s drugim sortama), kao i u Lombardiji (ukupno oko 2000 ha) konkretno u okolici grada Pavia (Oltrepò pavese). Uzgaja se i u Albaniji, pa i u dalekima Kini i Brazilu pa čak i u Kanadi! U Brazilu je dosta rabe u proizvodnji pjenušaca.

SINONIMI su joj Grašica, Laški rizling, Riesling italico, Riesling italiano, Olaszrizling, Wälsch/ Welsh Riesling, Ryzlink Vlašsky, Rizling Vlašsky, Borba (Španjolska Ribera del Guadiana, jugozapadni dio zemlje)…

Kao POGREŠNI SINONIMI za nju se ponekad rabe: Aligoté, Greco, Petit Meslier, Pignoletto, Riesling.

Sorta dugo pati od toga što je se miješa s Rizlingom rajnskim, zato što u nekim svojim sinonimima sadrži upravo riječ Rizling ili Riesling. Graševina međutim genetski a ni organoleptički nije isto što i Riesling bijeli ili Rizling rajnski, vezan uz područje Rajne u Njemačkoj. Riječ je o dva zasebna kultivara iz dvaju odvojenih zavičaja. U svježe objelodanjenome opsežnom vodiču kroz 1368 sorata svijeta, knjizi debeloj gotovo 1200 stranica, trio autora Jancis Robinson, Julia Harding i José Vouillamoz odlučio je – baš radi toga da se Graševinu napokon prestane u bilo kojem smislu i obliku brkati s Rizlingom rajnskim, ali i stoga što je ona sada ponajviše i vezana za prostor Hrvatske (gdje je, kako je već kazano, i najrasprostranjenija u sortimentu) a onda za prostore još nekih susjednih nam zemalja Srednje Europe – taj kultivar uvrstiti u svoju knjigu Wine Grapes pod hrvatskim nazivom GRAŠEVINA.

Za Hrvatsku je svakako osobito zanimljiva u vodiču Wine Grapes navedena pretpostavka Jancis Robinson, Julije Harding i Joséa Vouillamoza da bi zavičaj Graševine mogao biti – Danube region, odnosno regija podunavlja, što se, međutim, ne može automatski i sa sigurnošću prevesti i kao bazen Hrvatskog podunavlja!

PORIJEKLO: neki ampelografi poput npr. Ludwiga von Baboa (19. stoljeće) zastupali su stav da Graševina dolazi iz Francuske, moguće iz doline rijeke Marne u Champagnei, odnosno možda iz Alsacea, te da je introducirana u njemački Heidelberg kao Wälsch Riesling. Von Babo ju je pokušao identificirati kao Aligoté ili Petit Meslier, ali ustanovljeno je da ona nema nikakve veze njima.  Kako je sorta danas gotovo nepoznata u Francuskoj, mnogi drugi ampelografi protivnici su mišljenja da joj je domovina Francuska. Iz riječi Wälsch, Welsh u nazivu, pojedini ampelografi koji su pokušavali dokučiti istinu o njenu porijeklu zaključivali su da su za sortu znali u Franačkoj, na njemačkom govornom području, tj. da su joj Franci i nadjenuli upravo spomenute pridjeve. Wälsch se u Franačkoj nazivalo ono što je strano, što nije domaće, tj. germansko, franačko, dok se ono što jeste bilo franačko nazivalo fränkisch.

Zanimljivo je da je o Graševini, iako ona nije planetarno popularna kao neki drugi kultivari, isprelo mnogo priča u kontekstu njena porijekla. Zasigurno i to poprilično govori o vrijednosti toga kultivara, mada eto on danas nije globalno medijski toliko istaknut kao neki drugi. Neki svojedobno dobiveni podaci – bazirani i na spomenutim Von Baboovim tezama – kazivali su da je Graševina stigla k nama iz Njemačke, preko austrijske Štajerske, te da se u 19. stoljeću proširila zapadno-balkanskim prostorima gdje je našla idealne uvjete za uzgoj, pa je postala silno popularnom, i toliko se udomaćila da je se u Slavoniji smatra kultivarom ovih krajeva.

Neki, pak, izraze Wälsch, Welsh, Laški, Vlašsky ispred kojih odnosno – ovisno o jeziku – iza kojih se pojavljuje riječ Riesling ili Rizling, povezuju i s rumunjskom pokrajinom Walachia, koja se na slavenskim jezicima spominjala i kao Vlaška, pa su se rodile pretpostavke da je Welsh, Laški, Vlašsky nastalo od Walachije, Vlaške, te razmišljanja da porijeklo Graševine treba tražiti u Rumunjskoj. Međutim budući da je u Rumunjskoj za taj kultivar uvriježen naziv Riesling italiano, brojni stručnjaci s područja ampelografije suprotstavljaju se teoriji o rumunjskom porijeklu sorte, te s obzirom na pridjev italiano radije upućuju na talijansko porijeklo kultivara. To više što i Mađari dijelom svojega naziva – Olasz rizling – vuku prema talijanskoj strani, naime olasz znači talijanski.

Maletic Gilles Besse Vouillamoz Pejic Robinson Harding

Autori debele knjige Wine Grapes – vodič vinskim sortama svijeta, Jancis Robinson, Julia Harding i José Vouillamoz koristili su kao izvore za predstavljanje više sorata i  rezultate istraživanja u kojima su sudjelovali naši prof. dr. Edi Maletić i dr. Ivan Pejić sa zagrebačkog Agrononskog fakulteta  te podatke iz tekstova što ih je objavio prof. dr. Nikola Mirošević. Nedavno na promociji knjige u Londonu bili su prof.dr. Maletić i dr. Pejić, na slici ih vidimo na svečanoj večeri u društvu s Jancis Robinson, Julijom Harding, Joséom Vouillamozom te s Gillesom Besseom, predstavnikom udruge vinara švicarske pokrajine Valais.

Grasevina 2013 - Wine Grapes Robinson

Neki od onih koji su s obzirom na izraze italiano odnosno italico zagovarali talijansko porijeklo Graševine Graševinu su uspoređivali i izjednačavali sa jednom od sorata talijanskoga juga iz grupe Greco, jer da, navodno, obje dosta sliče rimskom kultivaru Vitis aminea gemella, međutim analize putem DNA pokazale su da Graševina i taj dotični Greco nisu genetski povezani. Iako eto, da ponovimo, naziv Riesling italico odnosno italiano sugerira Italiju kao zavičaj Graševine, čvrstoći prepostavke da je riječ o kultivaru talijanskoga porijekla ne idu u prilog tvrdnja profesora Antonija Calòa (2006.) da je Graševina u Italiju, u njen sjeverni dio, introducirana tek u 19. stoljeću, ali i činjenica da ona uopće nije karakteristična za Italiju.

Glede porijekla Graševine imamo i sljedeće: spominjala se i teza da je Graševina spontani križanac između sorte s talijanskog sjevera, kultivara s nazivom Verduzzo (kojega ima i u Hrvatskoj), i, možda, jedne sorte što se vezuje uz njemačko govorno područje. To roditeljstvo međutim nije i znanstveno potvrđeno.

Zanimljivo je svakako da Graševina ima veze sa – zamislite! – Španjolskom! Iznenađujuće je da 2003. godine objavljeni DNA-profil kultivara Borba uzgajanog u području Ribera del Guadiana na jugozapadu Španjolske odgovara DNA-profilu Graševine (Vouillamoz)!

SVOJSTVA: Graševini odgovaraju sjevernija kontinentalna vinogorja, visinski položaji na južnoj i od vjetra zaštićenoj strani, hladniju zemlju te hranjivo tlo, makar njoj može biti dobro i ono s dosta šljunka i kamena ali da je s nešto više vlage. Sorta po terminu početka berbe spada u kasne, a daje vino s dosta svježine, s lijepom kiselošću i voćnosti te s cvijetnim notama. Optimalni rezultat pruža kad je vegetacijski period dugačak, oko 165 do 170 dana. Graševina je vrlo pogodna za proizvodnju tzv. narančastih vina, konkretno za maceraciju dugačku i do 200 dana.

Zahvalna je, jer od nje se dade napraviti paleta različitih tipova vina. Ovisno o položaju vinograda, radu u vinogradu i opterećenju trsa te terminu berbe, kao i pristupu u podrumu, od nje je moguće proizvesti pjenušac, zatim vitka svježa jednostavnija aromatski neutralna vina no ipak i s dosta voćnosti, idealna kao ljetna vina, pa punija vina što se mogu njegovati i u barriqueu – mada valja reći da graševina u principu ipak i nije najprikladnija za barrique, te visoki plemenito botritizirani predikati. Iz austrijskog Gradišća, slovenskih Ljutomersko-ormoških gorica pa i Mariborskog vinogorja i, u Hrvatskoj, iz Hrvatskog zagorja te iz zapadne Slavonije (Daruvara), središnje Slavonije (Kutjevo) a i Podunavlja od nje dolaze najbolje izborne berbe, izborne berbe prosušenih bobica, ledena vina.

JELO i SERVIS: Mlado vino redovne berbe sa živom je žućkasto-zelenkastom bojom, svježe, s mirisom što upućuje na zelenu i zrelu jabuku, pa na krušku, (vinogradsku) breskvu, u ustima je profinjeno kiselkasto i s nervom. Vina iz odgođenih berbi punije su žućkaste do zlaćane boje, s voćnošću – ukuhano bijelo domaće koštićavo voće… – obogaćenom medom i specifičnim senzacijama za koje je odgovorna plemenita plijesan. U ustima vina budu slasna do slatka, i kremaste strukture do sirupasta.
Vina od Graševine dok su suha i mlađa prikladna su kao aperitiv te uz hladna predjela od plodova mora i topla predjela sa šparogama (kajgana, rižot), s artičokama, avokadom, tjesteninama s umacima od maslaca i sira, ali i uz kuhanu ribu, a malo strukturiranije graševine dobro će se složiti s pečenom ribom, piletinom pa i teletinom kao glavnim jelom. Visoki predikati odličan su pratitelj aromatičnih elaboriranih sireva poput gorgonzole, a i roqueforta, te, naravno, slatkih kolača, posebice onih s bijelim i žutim voćem.
Mlade suhe graševine poslužite na 10 Celzijevih stupnjeva, strukturiranije na 12 do 13 stupnjeva, a slatke predikate na oko 10 stupnjeva.

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GRAŠEVINA – THE LIQUID SYMBOL OF SLAVONIA

Željko SUHADOLNIK © november 2014.

By mentioning, in Croatia, the big northern region Slavonia, thoughts are immediately focused on the GRAŠEVINA (grashevina). Graševina – covering 4633 ha, about 22% of the total country’s assortment – is the most widespread variety in Croatia. Regarding it’s distribution on the global level, it takes around 15th place on the ranking charts.

Graševina is known as the Central Europe variety. Apart from Croatia (Međimurje, Varaždin surroundings, Hrvatsko zagorje and Plešivica on the northwest and west of the country, through Podravina and Moslavina until Slavonia & Danube area/Kutjevo, Slavonski Brod, Ðakovo, Erdut, Baranja, Srijem – Ilok, Vukovar…), it can be found in Slovenia, especially in the Slovenian Styria, Hungary, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, then in Serbia, too, and in northern Italy – Friuli (there it is, in the wine production, most often mixed with other varieties in cuvées), as well in Lombardy (about 2000 ha), around the town of Pavia (Oltrepò pavese). It is grown in Albania, even in distants China, Brazil, Canada! In Brazil, it is mostly used in the production of sparkling wines.

SYNONYMS for Graševina are Grašica, Laški rizling, Riesling italico, Riesling italiano, Olaszrizling, Wälsch/Welsh Riesling, Ryzlink Vlašsky, Rizling Vlašsky, Borba (Spain’s Ribera del Guadiana)….

As FALSE SYNONYMS for it sometimes are used: Aligoté, Greco, Petit Meslier, Pignoletto, Riesling.

Variety is for a long time suffering from being mixed with Riesling, because some of its synonyms are containing in it’s name the words Riesling or Rizling. Graševina, however, neither genetically nor organoleptically is the same as the White Riesling or Riesling, closely tied to the area of the Rhine river in Germany. Graševina (Welsh Riesling) and Riesling are two separate cultivars from two separate homelands. In freshly published complete guide to 1368 vine varieties of the world WINE GRAPES, the book almost 1200 pages thick, the authors Jancis Robinson, Julia Harding and José Vouillamoz decided – just for the sake that Graševina finally stops in any way and form being confused with Riesling, but also because it is now mostly related to the space of Croatia (where, as already stated, it is the most widespread in the assortment), and, then, for it’s presence in other to Croatia neighbouring Central European countries – to include this variety in their book Wine Grapes under the Croatian name as a principal one.

For Croatia is, certainly, particularly interesting in the guide Wine Grapes Jancis Robinson’s, Julia Harding’s and José Vouillamoz’s stated assumption that the Graševina’s homeland could be the Danube region, however, that does not automatically mean it is for sure the Croatian area of the vast Danube region!

ORIGIN: some ampelographers such as Ludwig von Babo (19th century) advocated the view that Graševina comes from France, possibly from the valley of the river Marne in Champagne, or, perhaps, from Alsace, and that it had been introduced into the German Heidelberg as Wälsch Riesling. Von Babo tried to identify it as Aligoté or Petit Meslier, but the science has found that Graševina have nothing to do with these two varieties. As Graševina is almost unknown in France, many other ampelographer’s opinion was it’s homeland could not be France. From words Walsch, Welsh, in the name, some ampelographers, who were trying to find out the truth about Graševina’s origins, have made conclusions that the variety had been known in Franconia, the German speaking area, and that Franks inserted the adjective Wälsch in it’s name. Wälsch in Franconia was called what was foreign, what was not local, Germanic, Frankish, while what was Frankish has been called Fränkisch.

It is interesting that about Graševina, although it is not globally popular as some other cultivars, many stories in the context of it’s origin are existing. Certainly, this says a lot about the value of that cultivar, although it is, as said before, not so prominent on the global vine/wine scene as some others, especially the ones from the French provenience. Some former datas – based on the mentioned Von Baboo’s theses – claimed that the Graševina or Welsh Riesling had arrived to Croatia from Germany, across the Austrian Styria, and that in the 19th century has spread through the Western Balkans where it found the ideal conditions for life, breeding. Graševina became immensely popular especially in the Croatian Slavonia, where among the people it is widely considered as the cultivar originally from right this area.

Some experts in ampelography, however, the expression Walsch, Welsh, Laški, Vlašský appearing in front of or – depending on the language – behind the word Riesling or Riesling, tended to associate with the Romanian province of Walachia, which in the Slavic languages sounds as Vlaška, so they gave birth to the assumption that the Walsch, Welsh, Laški, Vlašský are resulting from Wallachia, and were convinced that the origin of Graševina/Welsh Riesling, Laški rizling… should be sought in Romania. But since in Romania for this cultivar is commonly used the name Riesling italiano, many other experts in the field of the ampelography are opposed to the theory of Graševina being of the Romanian origin. The adjective italiano rather suggest to the Italian origin of the cultivar. What’s more: also the Hungarian name Olasz Riesling is dragging to the Italian side, namely olasz means Italian.

PHOTO, SEE ABOVE: Authors of the thick book Wine Grapes – a complete guide to wine grape varieties of the world, Jancis Robinson, Julia Harding and José Vouillamoz as sources for the presentation of several varieties have used also different research results in obtaining of which the croatian prof.dr. Edi Maletić and dr. Ivan Pejić from the Zagreb Faculty of Agronomy were involved, and the texts published by prof. dr. Nikola Mirošević, from the same faculty. At the book Wine Grapes promotion in London presents in person have been Maletić et Pejić, on the photo they can be seen at the dinner in the company of Jancis Robinson, Julia Harding and José Vouillamoz, and with Gilles Besse, representative of the Association of winemakers of the Swiss region of Valais

Some ampelographers on the basis of the terms Italiano or Italico supported vividly the suggestion of the Italian origin of the variety Graševina. They also compared, and equated, Graševina with one of the varieties from the Italian south, belonging to the group Greco. They claimed that Graševina and this certain Greco di… look a lot like the Roman cultivar Vitis aminee gemella, but through DNA analysis it has been showed that Graševina and the respective Greco are not genetically related. While there, again, the names Riesling Italico and Riesling Italiano suggest Italy as the homeland of Graševina, the strength of assumptions that Graševina is a cultivar of Italian origin do not at all support the claim of the professor Antonio Calò (2006) that the Graševina or Riesling italico, Riesling Italiano in Italy, in its northern part, had been introduced only in the 19th century, and the fact that Graševina was not, and is not even today, typical for Italy.

Regarding the origin of Graševina, here can also be added the mention that Graševina is the spontaneous cross between a variety from the northern Italy, cultivar named Verduzzo (grown in a small quantity in Croatia, too), and, perhaps, one variety which is linked to the German-speaking countries. This parenting has not been scientifically proven.

It is also interesting that Graševina has something to do with – imagine! – Spain! It is surprising that in 2003 published DNA-profile of the cultivar Borba, grown in the Ribera del Guadiana in the southwest of Spain, corresponds to the DNA profile of Graševina (Vouillamoz)!

PROPERTIES: Graševina prefers the northern continental vineyards, high altitude locations turned to the south, and the wind-protected sides. The variety likes cold and nutritious soil, but good for it can be also the one with a lot of gravel and rock, only with a little more humidity. In the term of the harvest it is a late ripening variety. The optimum for this variety is the long vegetative period, 165 to 170 days. It yields a wine with a lot of freshness, with a nice acidity, with fruitiness and with floral notes. Very suitable for the producing of orange wines, supports very well the long macerations even up to 200 days.

Graševina is a very versatile variety, since it can give really a range of different types of wine. Depending on the location/position of the vineyard and the work in the vines, the quantity of the yield and the date of harvest, as well as on the approach in the cellar, it is possible to produce out of it the sparklings, lean fresh simple, aromatically neutral however fruity still wines perfect for the summer consumption, then fuller wines which can be aged in oak barrels – although it must be said that Graševina in principle is not suited for barriques. Graševina showed itself as very suitable for the noble botrytis affected high predicates like late harvest, Auslese, BA, TBA, the Ice Wine too. From the Austrian Burgenland, Slovenian Ljutomer-Ormož and Maribor area, and vineyards in Croatia’s northwest like Hrvatsko zagorje, then Slavonia from the west (Daruvar), through the central part (Kutjevo) to the Danube area at the far east (Ilok) where Danube is the natural border between Croatia and Serbia, best late harvests, selected harvest of berries and dried berries, ice wines are coming.

FOOD AND SERVICE – Young Graševina wine from the regular harvest and to be consumed in one or two years time is characterized by lively bright colour with the yellow-greenish nuances, freshnes with the green and ripe apple, pear, (vineyard) peach on the nose, some mention even banana too, the mouth is round and subtly sour. Wines from the delayed harvest, ment for a longer life, present themselves with more density and better structure, are at first yellow-green and then with the time are getting the yellowish to golden colour, they are with fine fruitiness – mature and cooked local white stone fruits…, and the particular sweet Prädikatsweine (Spätlese, BA, TBA…) are enriched with honey flavours and specific sensations for which the noble rot is responsible. In the mouth the wines are deliciously sweet, creamy until syrupy.

The wines of Graševina while dry and younger are fine as an aperitif and with cold appetisers, dishes of seafood and warm dishes such as scrambled eggs and risotto with asparagus, also with artichokes, avocado, pasta with sauce of butter and cheese, even with cooked fish. A more structured Graševina will pair well with baked fish, chicken, veal as a main course. High Prädikats wines are an excellent accompaniement to the elaborated aromatic cheeses like Gorgonzola, Roquefort, and, of course, to the sweet cakes, especially those with white and yellow fruits.

Casa GrasevinaThe glass

Young dry Graševina is to be served at 10 degrees Celsius, structured one from 12 – 13 degrees to the, if alcohol is high and the structure powerfull, 14 degrees. Sweet Prädikats serve at around 10 – 12 degrees Celsius.

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